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Vol. 22. Num. 1. 2013. Pages 33-40

Eficacia del MMPI-A en casos forenses de acoso escolar: Simulación y daño psicológico

[The efficacy of the MMPI-A in bullying forensic cases: Malingeringand psychological injury]

Mercedes Novo Pérez1 , Francisca Fariña Rivera2 , Dolores Seijo1 , Ramón Arce Fernández1

1Univ. Santiago de Compostela, España ,2Univ. Vigo, España

Resumen

La eficacia de la evaluación forense del daño psicológico sustentada en el MMPI-2 y la entrevista clínica ha sido continuamente verificada en todo tipo de casuísticas. Sin embargo, no hay evidencia de la eficacia del MMPI para adolescentes (MMPI-A) en casos de acoso escolar. Para determinar la eficacia del MMPI-A en casos de acoso escolar, 107 participantes con edades comprendidas entre los 14 y los 18 anos (M = 14.85) cumplimentaron la adaptación española bajo instrucciones estándar y una semana después bajo instrucciones de simulación de la huella psicológica consecuencia de acoso escolar. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes disponían de una alta capacidad (91.6% para el trastorno por estrés postraumático, TEP, y entre el 60 y el 90% para las secuelas indirectas) para simulación del daño psicológico directo (TEP) y las secuelas indirectas (depresión, ansiedad, problemas psicosomáticos y problemas en las relaciones interpersonales). Se hallo que los simuladores seguían 4 estrategias: agrupación indiscriminada de síntomas, severidad de síntomas, síntomas obvios y síntomas raros. Las escalas de control de la validez F, F1, F2 y K discriminaron significativamente y con un tamaño del efecto grande entre respuestas honestas y simuladas. El índice F-K y el perfil L y K < 45 y F < 80 también discriminaron significativamente y con un tamaño del efecto grande entre protocolos honestos y simulados. El estudio de casos mostró un alto poder de clasificación correcta de estas escalas e índices de la simulación (verdaderos positivos) para estos indicadores (para K con T < 40) con un margen de error muy bajo (falsos positivos). Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para la práctica forense.

Abstract

The efficacy of forensic evaluation of the psychological injury based on the MMPI-2 and a clinical interview has been continuously supported by literature. Nevertheless, there is no evidence of the efficacy of the MMPI for adolescents (MMPI-A) for bullying cases. To contrast the efficacy of the MMPI-A in bullying cases, 107 adolescents ranged from 14 to 18 years old (M = 14.85) endorsed the Spanish adaptation of the MMPI-A under standard and malingering instructions. The results showed a high adolescent ability (91.6% for posttraumatic stress disorder, ranging from 60 to 90% for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorders) to malinger both the direct (posttraumatic stress disorder) and indirect (depression, anxiety, psychosomatic problems, problems in interpersonal relationships) psychological injury. Four malingering strategies were identified in malingering protocols: indiscriminate symptom endorsement, symptom severity, obvious symptoms, and infrequent symptoms. The F, F1, F2 and K standard validity scales discriminated significantly and with a large effect size between genuine and malingered responding. Likewise, the F-K index and the L and K < 45 and F < 80 profile discriminated significantly and with a large effect size between genuine and malingered responding. The study of cases revealed excellent classification rates of the standard validity scales (K < 40) and indices for malingered (true positives) and honest (false positives) responding. Implications for forensic practice are discussed.

Palabras clave

Bullying
MMPI-A
Simulación
Daño psicológico
Contexto forense

Keywords

Bullying
MMPI-A
Malingering
Psychological injury
Forensic setting
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