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Vol. 21. Num. 1. 2012. Pages 77-89

La Violencia Escolar entre Iguales en Alumnos Populares y Rechazados

[The School Violence Between Peers in Popular and Rejected Students]

Jiménez Gutiérrez, Teresa I. Lehalle, Henri

Resumen

Los modelos psicosociales del desarrollo en la adolescencia han apuntado hacia la importancia de considerar la interrelación entre los contextos significativos para el adolescente (familia, escuela y comunidad) en la compresión de su ajuste psicosocial. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han analizado la influencia conjunta de estos contextos en el desarrollo de un problema conductual específico como es la conducta violenta en las escuelas. Con el presente estudio se pretende explorar los nexos existentes entre la percepción del clima familiar, escolar y comunitario en la violencia escolar teniendo presente el papel del bienestar y malestar subjetivo del adolescente. Para poner a prueba estas relaciones múltiples se ha utilizado una muestra de 1795 adolescentes de ambos sexos con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 18 años. Los datos se analizaron mediante el cálculo de un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, incluyendo un análisis multigrupo para alumnos rechazados y populares en el aula. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan las relaciones esperadas y el modelo resultante es equivalente para ambos tipos sociométricos. En la discusión se consideran las implicaciones de estos resultados para la intervención con adolescentes desde una perspectiva individual y contextual.

Abstract

Psychosocial models of adolescent development have pointed to the importance of considering the interrelationship between relevant contexts (family, school and community) in understanding psychosocial adjustment. However, few studies have examined the combined influence of these contexts in the development of specific behavioral problems such as violent behavior in schools. The present study aims to explore the links between the perception of the family, school and community climate on school violence considering the role of subjective well-being and adolescent distress. To test these multiple relationships a sample of 1795 adolescents of both sexes aged between 11 and 18 has been used. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model, including a multi-group analysis for popular and rejected students in the classroom. The results support the expected relationships and the resulting model is equivalent for both sociometric status. The discussion considers the implications of these findings for intervention with adolescents from an individual and contextual perspective.

Palabras clave

bienestar psicológico
clima percibido
estatus sociométrico
malestar psicológico
violencia escolar

Keywords

distress
perceived climate
school violence
sociometric status
subjective well-being
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