EN ES
Vol. 20. Num. 1. 2011. Pages 75-94

Factores Asociados al Consumo Juvenil de Alcohol: Una Revisión desde una Perspectiva Psicosocial y Ecológica

[Factors Associated with Youth Alcohol Consumption: A Review from a Psychosocial and Ecological Perspective]

Pons, Javier Buelga, Sofía

Resumen

El consumo abusivo de alcohol en la adolescencia es, en el momento actual, un importante problema de salud pública, hasta el punto de que su prevención se ha convertido en una de las prioridades en las políticas de salud. También, y en el ámbito de la intervención social, se ha venido estudiando, en los últimos años, los factores psicosociales implicados en ese consumo. En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo una revisión de esos factores en el marco de la perspectiva ecológica, en la que se integran las variables psicológicas, relacionales y socioculturales. El consumo de alcohol es analizado como parte integrante de la cultura juvenil, despojando la explicación de contenidos patologistas o moralistas, y aproximándonos a la concepción de que el consumo de alcohol es un medio que utiliza el adolescente para lograr su ajuste en una sociedad que se caracteriza por la complejidad. Se analiza, en primer lugar, las variables disposicionales del sujeto, seguidamente se repasan las provenientes del contexto familiar y, finalmente, se explora la relación entre el consumo de alcohol y los factores del entorno sociocultural.

Abstract

Abusive alcohol consumption in adolescence is currently an important problem of public health, to the point that prevention has become a priority in health policies. Also, in the field of social intervention, the psychosocial factors involved in that consumption has been studied in the last years. In the present work a revision of those factors is carried out from the ecological perspective, in which psychological, relational and sociocultural variables are integrated. Alcohol consumption is analyzed as part of the youth culture, rejecting explanations of pathological or moralistic content, and following an approach in which alcohol consumption is understood as a mean used by the adolescent in order to achieve adjustment in a society characterized by complexity. First, individual dispositional variables are analysed; following this, variables from the family context are examined, and finally the relationship between alcohol consumption and factors of the sociocultural context are explored.

Palabras clave

adolescencia
alcohol
consumo abusivo de alcohol
drogas
modelo ecológico

Keywords

abusive alcohol consumption
adolescence
alcohol
drugs
ecological model
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