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Vol. 21. Num. 2. 2012. Pages 145-156

Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

[Un Programa para la Mejora de las Relaciones Padres-Hijos. La Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos ]

Urquiza,Anthony J. Timmer,Susan

University of California at Davis Children’s Hospital, USA

Abstract

Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships), there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

Resumen

Los problemas de comportamiento infantil disruptivo son frecuentes para muchos padres y pueden estar asociados con graves conductas delictivas o agresivas/violentas en la adolescencia o en la edad adulta. Las intervenciones con los padres que tratan este tipo de problemas de comportamiento disruptivo han ganado aceptación. Unos de estos programas de intervención con los padres es la Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos (PCIT). El PCIT es un programa, basado en las teorías del apego y del aprendizaje social, diseñado para niños y niñas de entre 2 y 7 años de edad que presenten problemas de conducta disruptiva o externalizados, y que tiene una duración de entre 14 y 20 semanas. En este artículo se presentará una breve revisión de la historia del PCIT, una descripción de sus componentes básicos, y una visión general de los avances recientes que subrayan las posibilidades del PCIT para mejorar las relaciones padres-hijos en familias maltratantes, para tratar a niños y niñas víctimas de situaciones traumáticas y para mejorar la resiliencia en niños y niñas de corta edad. En relación con los tres objetivos básicos del PCIT (es decir, reducción de los problemas de conducta, mejora de las habilidades parentales y mejora de la calidad de las relaciones entre padres e hijos), hay una abundancia de investigaciones que demuestran robustos efectos del tratamiento y, por tanto, su validez para ser aplicado de manera generalizada. La investigación más reciente ha demostrado también el valor de PCIT en la reducción de síntomas traumáticos en niños y niñas de corta edad.

Keywords

behavior problems
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
parenting skills
treatment

Palabras clave

habilidades parentales
problemas de conducta
Terapia de Interacción Padres-Hijos
tratamiento
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