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Vol. 20. Num. 2. 2011. Pages 161-170

Factores Asociados a la Implicación en Bullying: Un Estudio en Nicaragua

[Factors Associated with Involvement in Bullying: A Study in Nicaragua]

Romera, Eva M. Del Rey, Rosario Ortega, Rosario

Resumen

El bullying escolar es uno de los principales problemas que afecta a la calidad de las relaciones interpersonales entre iguales en las escuelas y en general a la calidad de la convivencia. A nivel europeo, existen resultados científicos que indican su naturaleza, características y factores relacionados con su implicación. Sin embargo, en los países pobres y en desarrollo, donde el problema es aún más grave, hay un alto grado de desconocimiento de este problema. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer qué factores pueden estar influyendo en la aparición de la intimidación en una muestra representativa de escuelas primarias en Managua y su área metropolitana. Para ello se ha entrevistado a 3042 niños y niñas que asisten a las escuelas primarias de la capital nicaragüense utilizando instrumentos similares a los utilizados en Europa. Un análisis de regresión logística multinomial señala que ser chico, manifestar conductas y actitudes antisociales y mantener contacto con drogas son tres factores relacionados con el rol de agresor. Relaciones interpersonales negativas ejercen una influencia significativa sobre la implicación en este fenómeno, ya sea como víctima, agresor o agresor victimizado. Los resultados se discuten en relación a los perfiles y figuras del agresor y víctima de bullying en estudios internacionales focalizando las diferencias respecto de países desarrollados.

Abstract

School bullying is one of the main problems affecting the quality of peer relationships in schools and in general the coexistence. At European level, there are scientific findings that indicate its nature, characteristics and factors related to its involvement. However, in poor and developing countries, where the problem is more serious, there is a high degree of awareness on this matter. The present study aimed to identify what factors may be influencing the occurrence of bullying in a representative sample of primary schools in the Nicaraguan capital. For this propose, 3042 students from Managua and its metropolitan area were explored with instruments comparable to those used in Europe. A multinomial logistic regression analysis indicated that being a boy, to show antisocial behaviors and attitudes and contact with drugs were the three factors most related with the role of aggressor, as well as negative relationships had a significant influence on involvement in this phenomenon, either as a victim, aggressor or victimized aggressor. Results are discussed in relation to the profiles of aggressor and victim of bullying in international studies focusing on differences in developed countries.

Palabras clave

bullying#Nicaragua#países pobres#relaciones interpersonales
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