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Vol. 20. Num. 2. 2011. Pages 121-130
 

Exposición a la Violencia entre los Padres, Prácticas de Crianza y Malestar Psicológico a Largo Plazo de los Hijos

[Witnessing Interparental Violence, Parenting Practices, and Children´s Long-Term Psychological Distress]

Gámez-Guadix, Manuel Almendros, Carmen

Resumen

El primer objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre la exposición a la violencia intraparental durante la infancia y el grado de malestar psicológico de los hijos en la edad adulta, y si dicha relación está mediada por un deterioro de las prácticas de crianza de los padres (i.e., la disciplina severa, las demostraciones de afecto y apoyo y la inconsistencia inter e intraparental). Un segundo objetivo consistió en examinar las diferencias por sexo en las relaciones estudiadas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 680 estudiantes universitarios (62.4% mujeres) seleccionados por muestreo aleatorio, estratificado y proporcional (por facultad y sexo). Los participantes informaron retrospectivamente acerca de si habían presenciado violencia entre sus padres, las pautas de crianza recibidas en la infancia y su nivel de malestar psicológico actual. Los resultados indicaron que la disciplina severa (castigo físico y psicológico) y las demostraciones de afecto y apoyo mediaron parcialmente la relación entre la exposición a la violencia marital y el nivel de malestar de los hijos a largo plazo. Además, no se encontraron diferencias por sexo en las relaciones especificadas. Finalmente, se discuten los hallazgos del estudio, sus limitaciones y las implicaciones para la planificación de programas de intervención.

Abstract

The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency). The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% females) selected by random, stratified, and proportional sampling (by faculty and sex). Participants retrospectively reported the physical and psychological violence perpetrated by one of his or her parents against the other, the parenting practices when they were preadolescents, and the psychological distress during the past two weeks. Results revealed that harsh discipline and the level of affection and affection/support partially mediated the association between children´s witnessing interparental violence and their long-term psychological distress. These relationships were not significantly different as a function of participants´ sex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the planning and development of intervention programs.

Palabras clave

malestar psicológico#prácticas de crianza#violencia entre los padres
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