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Vol. 20. Num. 2. 2011. Pages 149-160

School Victimization Among Adolescents. An Analysis from an Ecological Perspective

[Victimización Escolar en Adolescentes. Un Análisis desde la Perspectiva Ecológica]

Martínez Ferrer, Belén Moreno Ruiz, David Amador, Luis V. Orford, Jim

Abstract

The present study has two objectives. The first is to analyze the relationships between community (integration in the community), family (perception of family climate), school (perception of school climate) and individual (social reputation and satisfaction with life) and school victimization among adolescents, from an ecological perspective. Secondly, this study aims to examine the differences in these relationships between boys and girls. The sample is composed of 1795 adolescents of both sexes (52% boys and 48% girls) whose ages range from 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.2, SD = 1.68) and who are all from the Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalucia. A model of structural equations was calculated using the EQS program. The results indicated that school climate and satisfaction with life are positively associated with victimization. In addition, community integration and family climate are related to victimization through life satisfaction. The multigroup analysis by sex indicated that the relationship between school climate and social reputation, as well as between implication in the community and social reputation were only statistically significant in the case of boys. Finally, the results obtained and their potential implications are discussed from an ecological point of view.

Resumen

El presente estudio tiene dos objetivos. El primer objetivo es analizar las relaciones entre los ámbitos comunitario (integración en la comunidad), familiar (percepción del clima familiar), escolar (percepción del clima escolar) e individual (reputación social y satisfacción con la vida) y la victimización escolar en adolescentes, desde una perspectiva ecológica. En segundo lugar, examinar las diferencias entre chicos y chicas en estas relaciones. La muestra está compuesta por 1795 adolescentes de ambos sexos (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y 18 años (M = 14.2, DT = 1.68) procedentes de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía. Se calculó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales con el programa EQS. Los resultados indicaron que el clima escolar y la satisfacción con la vida se asocian de manera positiva con la victimización. Además, la integración comunitaria y el clima familiar se relacionan con la victimización a través de la satisfacción con la vida. El análisis multigrupo en función del sexo indicó que la relación entre el clima escolar y la reputación social, así como entre implicación comunitaria y reputación social resultó significativa únicamente para los chicos. Finalmente, se discuten los resultados obtenidos y sus posibles implicaciones desde un enfoque ecológico.

Keywords

community integration
family climate
ideal non-conforming social reputation
satisfaction with life
school climate
victimization.

Palabras clave

clima escolar
clima familiar
integración comunitaria
reputación social ideal no conformista
satisfacción con la vida
victimización.
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