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Vol. 21. Num. 1. 2012. Pages 53-65

Análisis de la Relación entre la Victimización y la Violencia Escolar: El Rol de la Reputación antisocial

[Analysis of the Relationship Between Victimization and School Violence: The Role of Antisocial Reputation]

Estévez, Estefanía Inglés, Cándido J. Emler, Nicholas P. Martínez-Monteagudo, María C. Torregrosa, María S.

Resumen

Estudios previos han identificado dos subgrupos de víctimas de violencia escolar. Un primer subgrupo lo componen la mayoría de víctimas que se caracterizan por su respuesta pasiva y sumisa ante los ataques, mientras que un menor porcentaje, aunque en mayor riesgo de desajuste psicosocial, combina la victimización con un comportamiento desafiante, hostil y agresivo. El presente estudio se centra en el segundo caso, con el objeto de analizar los posibles factores influyentes en el proceso de transición de la victimización a la implicación en conductas agresivas en el contexto escolar. La premisa de partida se fundamenta en la teoría propuesta originalmente por Emler, que sostiene que la percepción de desprotección de la víctima en la situación de intimidación, puede resultar en la búsqueda de una reputación antisocial que le ayude a auto-defenderse ante futuros ataques, una imagen social que se configura precisamente con la implicación en actos violentos. Para analizar estas relaciones, se utilizó una muestra de 1795 adolescentes de entre 11 y 18 años, escolarizados en nueve centros de educación secundaria obligatoria. Para el análisis de los datos, se calculó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales que confirmó la hipótesis de partida.

Abstract

Previous studies have identified two subgroups of victims of school violence. A first subgroup is composed of the majority of victims who are characterized by their passive response and withdrawal in violent situations, while a lower percentage, although at more risk of psychosocial maladjustment, combines victimization with a defiant, hostile and aggressive behaviour. The present study is focused on the second case, with the purpose of analyzing the possible factors influencing the transition from passive victimization to involvement in aggressive behaviors within the school context. The starting premise is based on the theory originally proposed by Emler, which posits that the victim’s perception of helplessness in situations of intimidation, may result in the searching of an antisocial reputation that helps victims defend themselves against future attacks; a social image that takes shape precisely through the involvement in violent acts. To test these relationships, 1795 adolescents between 11 and 18 years of age were recruited from nine secondary schools. To analyse the data, a structural equation model was calculated, which confirmed the starting hypothesis.

Palabras clave

adolescencia
ajuste psicosocial
reputación social
victimización
violencia escolar

Keywords

adolescence
psychosocial adjustment
social reputation
school violence
victimization
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