EN ES
Vol. 22. Num. 1. 2013. Pages 61-70

Social Cognitive Maps. Un método para identificar los grupos sociales en contextos Naturales

[Social Cognitive Maps. A method for identifying social groups in natural settings]



,1Univ. Jaume I, Dep. Psicología Evolutiva, Educativa, Social y Metodología, Castellón, España

Resumen

En este artículo se describe el Composite Social Cognitive Maps (SCM), un método para identificar grupos de personas en contextos naturales. Se presenta el método, fundamentos, procedimiento de entrevista, utilización del software SCM 4.0 y análisis de la información que este proporciona. Este software, a pesar de contar con una amplia tradición, es bastante desconocido en contextos de habla española. El método se puede aplicar en diversos ámbitos, pero en el presente trabajo se particulariza al contexto escolar, al aula y a los grupos de alumnos que hay en el aula. EL SCM proporciona información sobre: a) la identidad de los individuos que forman parte de un grupo de iguales y las personas con las que cada individuo esta mas estrechamente relacionado, b) el numero de grupos y la centralidad de cada grupo dentro de la red social (aula) y c) la centralidad de cada individuo dentro del aula. Por ultimo se comentan los resultados obtenidos en estudios que han utilizado este método y se proporciona información sobre su validez, fiabilidad y generalización.

Abstract

This article describes the composite Social-Cognitive Map (SCM), a user-friendly method to identify groups of persons in natural settings. The method is introduced, with its foundations, the interview procedure, the use of SCM software 4.0, and the analysis of the information it yields. Despite having a large tradition, this software is quite unknown in Spanish speaking contexts. This method can be applied in various fields, but in this study we focus on the school context, the classroom and the student groups in the classroom. The SCM provides information on: a) the identity of individuals who are members of a peer group and the people with whom each individual is more closely affiliated; b) the number of peer groups and the centrality of each group within the social network (class); and c) the centrality of each individual in the classroom. Finally, the results obtained in studies which applied this method are commented, and information about its validity, reliability and generalization is provided.

Referencias
Adler and Adler, 1998
P.A. Adler
P. Adler
Peer Power: Preadolescent culture and identity
1998
Asher et al., 1996
S. Asher
J. Parker
D. Walker
Distinguishing friendship from acceptance: Implications for intervention and assessment
The company they keep: Friendships in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge studies in social and emotional development
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge, UK
1996
336-405
Cairns et al., 1988
R.B. Cairns
B.D. Cairns
H.J. Neckerman
S. Gest
J.L. Gariepy
Social networks and aggressive behavior: Peer support or peer rejection?
Developmental Psychology
24
1988
815-23
Cairns et al., 1996
Cairns, R.B., Gariepy, J.L., Kinderman, T. y Leung, M.C. (1996). Identifying social clusters in natural settings. Unpublished manuscript, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Cairns et al., 1995
R.B. Cairns
M.C. Leung
L. Buchanan
B.D. Cairns
Friendships and social networks in childhood and adolescence, Fluidity, reliability, and interrelations
Child Development
66
1995
1330-45
Cairns et al., 1985
R.B. Cairns
J.E. Perrin
B.D. Cairns
Social structure and social cognition in early adolescence: Affiliative patterns
Journal of Early Adolescence
5
1985
339-55
Cairns et al., 1998
R.B. Cairns
H. Xie
M. Leung
The popularity of friendship and the neglect of social networks: Toward a new balance
Sociometry then and now: Building on six decades of measuring children's experiences with the peer group: No. 80. New directions for child development
Jossey-Bass
San Francisco
1998
5-24
Chung-Hall and Chen, 2010
J. Chung-Hall
X. Chen
Aggressive and prosocial peer group functioning: Effects on children's social, school, and psychological adjustment
Social Development
19
2010
659-80
Cillessen, 2008
A.H.N. Cillessen
Sociometric methods
Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups
Guilford
New York
2008
82-99
Cillessen and Mayeux, 2004
A.H.N. Cillessen
L. Mayeux
From censure to reinforcement: developmental changes in the association between aggression and social status
Child Development
75
2004
147-63
Coie and Dodge, 1988
J.D. Coie
K.A. Dodge
Continuities and changes in children's social status: A five-year perspective
Merrill Palmer Quarterly
29
1988
261-81
Ellis and Zarbatany, 2007
W.E. Ellis
L. Zarbatany
Peer group status as a moderator of group influence on children's deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior
Child Development
78
2007
1240-54
García-Bacete and González, 2010
F.J. García-Bacete
J. González
Evaluación de la competencia social entre iguales
2010
García-Bacete et al., 2010
F.J. García-Bacete
I. Sureda
M.I. Monjas
El rechazo entre iguales en la educación primaria: una panorámica general
Anales de Psicología
26
2010
123-36
Gest et al., 2001
S.D. Gest
S.A. Graham-Bermann
W.W. Hartup
Peer experience: Common and unique features of number of friendships, social network centrality, and sociometric status
Social Development
10
2001
23-40
Gifford-Smith and Brownell, 2003
M.E. Gifford-Smith
C.A. Brownell
Childhood peer relationships: Social acceptance, friendships and peer networks
Journal of School Psychology
41
2003
235-84
Glick and Rose, 2011
G.C. Glick
A.J. Rose
Prospective associations between friendship adjustment and social strategies: Friendship as a context for building social skills
Developmental Psychology
47
2011
1117-32
Grupo GREI, 2008
Grupo GREI
SCM, Mapa Cognitivo Social. Protocolo y hoja de respuesta
2008
Hinde and Stevenson-Hinde, 1987
R.A. Hinde
J. Stevenson-Hinde
Interpersonal relationships and child development
Developmental Review
7
1987
1-21
Hitti et al., 2011
A. Hitti
K.L. Mulvey
M. Killen
Social exclusion and culture: The role of group norms, group identity and fairness
Anales de Psicología
27
2011
587-99
Hodges and Card, 2003
Enemies and the darker side of peer relations
Jossey-Bass
San Francisco
2003
Hymel et al., 1993
S. Hymel
A. Bowker
E. Woody
Aggressive vs. withdrawn unpopular children: Peer- and selfperceptions across multiple domains
Child Development
64
1993
879-96
Jones and Estell, 2010
M.H. Jones
D.B. Estell
When elementary students change peer groups: intragroup centrality, intergroup centrality, and self-Perceptions of popularity
Merrill Palmer Quarterly
56
2010
164-88
Kinderman, 1993
T.A. Kinderman
Natural peer groups as contexts for individual development: The case of children's motivation in school
Developmental Psychology
29
1993
970-7
Kwon et al., 2011
K.A. Kwon
M.A. Lease
L. Hoffman
The Impact of Clique Membership on Children's Social Behavior and Status Nominations
Social Development
21
2011
150-69
Monjas et al., 2008
M.I. Monjas
I. Sureda
F.J. García Bacete
¿Por qué los niños y las niñas se aceptan y se rechazan?
Cultura y Educación
20
2008
479-92
Neckerman, 1996
H.J. Neckerman
The stability of social groups in childhood and adolescence: The role of the classroom social environment
Social Development
5
1996
131-45
Nesdale, 2011
D. Nesdale
Social groups and children's intergroup prejudice: Just how influential are social group norms?
Anales de Psicología
27
2011
600-10
Rubin et al., 2009
K.H. Rubin
W.M. Bukowski
B. Laursen
Handbook of peer interactions, relationships and groups
2009
Schneider, 2000
B. Schneider
Friends and enemies: Peer relations in childhood
2000
Seo and Huang, 2012
D.C. Seo
Y. Huang
Systematic review of social network analysis in adolescent cigarette smoking behavior
Journal of School Health
82
2012
21-7
Xie et al., 2001
H. Xie
B.D. Cairns
R.B. Cairns
Predicting teen motherhood and teen fatherhood: Individual characteristics and peer affiliations
Social Development
10
2001
488-509

Copyright © 2018. Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid

© Copyright 2018. Colegio Oficial de Psicólogos de Madrid ContactPrivacy PolicyCookies Policy

We use our own and third­party cookies. The data we compile is analysed to improve the website and to offer more personalized services. By continuing to browse, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. For more information, see our cookies policy

Aceptar