Vol. 20. Núm. 2. - 2014. Páginas 79-87

An introduction to the use of evidence-centered design in test development

[Introducción al diseño centrado en la evidencia en la construcción de tests]

Michael J. Zieky1

1Educational Testing Serv., Princeton, New Jersey, USA


The purpose of this article is to describe what Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) is and to explain why and how ECD is used in the design and development of tests. The article will be most useful for readers who have some knowledge of traditional test development practices, but who are unfamiliar with ECD. The article begins with descriptions of the major characteristics of ECD, adds a brief note on the origins of ECD, and discusses the relationship of ECD to traditional test development. Next, the article lists the important advantages of using ECD with an emphasis on the validity of the inferences made about test takers on the basis of their scores. The article explains the nature and purpose of the "layers" or stages of the ECD test design and development process: 1) domain analysis; 2) domain modeling; 3) conceptual assessment framework; 4) assessment implementation; and 5) assessment delivery. Some observations about my experience with the early application of ECD for those who plan to begin using ECD, a brief conclusion, and some recommendations for further reading end the article. 



El objetivo de este trabajo es describir qué es y explicar por qué y cómo se utiliza el Diseño Centrado en la Evidencia (DCE) para diseñar y construir tests. Este trabajo está pensado especialmente para personas que ya estén algo familiarizadas con las prácticas tradicionales de construcción de tests pero que desconozcan el DCE. Comienza con una descripción de las características fundamentales del DCE, continua con un breve apunte acerca de su origen y analiza su relación con la práctica tradicional en la construcción de tests. A continuación, se indican las ventajas que conlleva la utilización del DCE, resaltando su impacto en la validez de las inferencias realizadas sobre los sujetos en base a sus puntuaciones en los tests. En el artículo se explica la naturaleza y el objetivo de las 'capas' o etapas en el proceso de diseño y construcción de tests con el DCE: 1) análisis del dominio, 2) modelado del dominio, 3) marco conceptual de la evaluación, 4) implementación de la evaluación y 5) administración de la evaluación. Para terminar, se ofrecen algunos comentarios acerca de la experiencia del autor en la aplicación del DCE para aquellos que estén pensando en empezara utilizarlo, junto a una breve conclusión y alguna recomendación acerca de lecturas adicionales sobre el tema. 


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